Wednesday, 31 July 2013
Tuesday, 30 July 2013
|'I'm siiiiiiiiiiiinging in the rain...'|
It was only about my third or fourth academic publication, written shortly after my 27th birthday, and I'd still see it as no more than juvenilia. Nonetheless, the original has been cited in worthy places by serious historians and is very difficult to find. The journal was pretty short-lived. Indeed I've often been asked where it can be obtained - including in the comments on this blog. So here it is. I've corrected a couple of grammatical errors but otherwise it is exactly as it was submitted to the journal and I've not bothered to do anything else with it. at some point I may come back and indicate the page-breaks so that - if for some reason you are so inclined - you can cite it as published, although I can't be bothered to check whether this text is exactly as published...
Please note that the piece was not penned as a particularly serious piece of academic research, making its citation in learned articles a pleasant surprise. I wrote it for my undergraduates, who often seemed to have difficulty getting a purchase on how historians who were 'pro-' or 'anti-Viking atrocity' all could write such convincing arguments with accurate and scholarly citation of written and other evidence. This was offered as a way out of the impasse.
I don't guarantee that I still agree with it; I don't guarantee its empirical accuracy! It's very old.]
- See, above all, Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings. and Sawyer, Kings and Vikings. Full references are given in the bibliography at the end of the article.
- For the rebuttal of Sawyer's arguments on this, see Brooks, 'England in the ninth century: the crucible of defeat.'
- Above all, Smyth Scandinavian Kings in the British Isles, 850-880.
- See, most notably, Wormald, 'Viking studies: whence and whither?' In this journal, a useful summary of the debate, and of the 'prosecution's' position, is given by Foot, 'Violence against Christians? The Vikings and the Church in ninth-century England.'
- For a very clear statement of the idea that the Danes deliberately used such 'terror tactics' to bring about the collapse and conquest of English kingdoms, see Smyth, 'The Vikings in Britain.' pp. 107-9.
- Smyth, Scandinavian Kings in the British Isles, chs.14, 16 and 17 discusses the rite, and alleged instances of its use, in full gory detail.
- Frank, 'Viking Atrocity and Skaldic verse: The rite of the Blood Eagle.'; Einarsson, 'De normannorum atrocitate: Or on the execution of royalty by the Aquiline method.' is the counter-argument.
- Fredegar, Chronicle IV.41. Throughout the foot-notes to this article, for ease of reference, only English translations are cited.
- See Collins, 'Julian of Toledo and the royal succession in late seventh-century Spain.' p.43.
- Bede Ecclesiastical History [hereafter H.E.] III.14.
- Compare, however, the reasons given for the murder of Sigibert of East Anglia in H.E. III.22: he forgave his enemies too readily.
- Bede, H.E. IV.16.
- Bede, H.E. III.1.
- Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (hereafter A.S.C.) sub anno 792 (recte 794); Whitelock, English Historical Documents (hereafter EHD), doc.1.
- Simeon of Durham History of the Kings, sub anno 791. EHD doc.3.a.
- The execution of Osred is recorded in Simeon of Durham History of the Kings sub anno 790; the killing of the three ealdormen is mentioned by Simeon, sub anno 778.
- See the Royal Frankish Annals; Scholz (trans.) Carolingian Chronicles.
- Halsall, 'Anthropology and the study of pre-conquest warfare and society; the ritual war in Anglo-Saxon England.' This is an overstatement in places, and is rather carelessly argued, but the gist of the argument is, I think, on the right lines. [Nowadays I'd say it was an embarrassing piece of juvenile nonsense, all copies of which ought to be destroyed!]
- See O Corrain Ireland Before the Normans. p.81.
- Gregory of Tours Histories III.3; Beowulf line 2354 ff., Bradley (trans.) Anglo-Saxon Poetry.
- Haywood, Barbarian Naval Power.
- Bede, H.E. IV.26.
- Translated in Sherley Price (trans.) (rev. Farmer) Bede. A History of the English Church and People. and in EHD, doc.170.
- See, eg., P.H. Sawyer, 'The causes of the Viking Age.'
- Alcuin's letter to AEthelred, King of Northumbria. EHD doc.193.
- Above, n.22.
- Cynddylan's attack is discussed in Brooks, 'The formation of the Mercian kingdom', p.169. The Annales Cambriae are translated in Morris, Nennius. The British History and the Welsh Annals.
- D. O Corrain, Ireland Before the Normans, p.85.
- Gregory, Histories, VIII.31.
- Gregory, Histories, III.12-13. Gregory of Tours Life of the Fathers IV.2.
- Fredegar, Chronicle IV.32.
- Fredegar, Chronicle, Continuations, 2.
- Eddius Stephanus, Life of Wilfrid, ch.6, where Aunemund is confused with his brother, Dalfinus. Webb & Farmer (trans.) The Age of Bede.
- Foot, 'Violence against Christians?' pp.5-6 gives more examples of English, Irish, Frankish and Breton attacks upon churches.
- Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings. pp.202-3.
- Halsall, 'Anthropology and the study of pre-conquest warfare and society.'
- Foot, 'Violence against Christians?'
- K. Hughes, Early Christian Ireland: Introduction to the Sources. p.155; Foot, 'Violence against Christians?' p.6.
- Royal Frankish Annals sub anno 772.
- Foot 'Violence against Christians?' p.10. But does early Germanic Christian art 'depend entirely upon Christian symbols' (my italics)? What exactly is an exclusively Christian or pagan symbol in such art? In sixth- and seventh-century metalwork, how, for example, does one distinguish Daniel in the lions' den, from Man threatened by evil spirits? Early medieval art was usually deliberately ambiguous in this respect.
- As manifested in the present strife between Croats and Serbs.
- G. Halsall, 'Bandits, brigands and outlaws in the early medieval West: A study in the definition of legitimate and illegitimate violence between c.450 and c.820.'
- James, The Origins of France. p.143.
- A.S.C. sub anno 876; EHD p.194, n.7.
- Asser, Life of King Alfred ch.49; trans. in Keynes & Lapidge Alfred the Great, pp.65-110.
- Foot, 'Violence against Christians?' p.16.
Saturday, 27 July 2013
Monday, 22 July 2013
Tuesday, 9 July 2013
Foching the Tories (more vague musing on how History might help us think about what to do in the present)
[I mentioned recently a blogging crise de confiance. Who cares what I think? And what do I know? Fair questions. I often blog about things I'm no expert in, like philosophy and politics. But then again I do care about these issues. Then I read these blogs in national newspapers here and here and I thought that, whatever I think or write it's no crazier than these opinions (Cameron's government is socialist? Hard right Tory policies will win Labour voters over by producing social mobility? Hell, at least I haven't taken the quantities of Class As that would give me those ideas). So, no I'm not a politician (and could never be) or political theorist but maybe these musings will spark or feed into some better ideas by someone who is.]